Recreational Therapy for Older Adults - eBook

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ISBN/ISSN: 978-1-57167-950-5

Copyright year: 2019

Edition: 1

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The purpose of Recreational Therapy for Older Adults is to provide a comprehensive textbook for any college or university teaching an undergraduate or graduate course in recreational therapy or therapeutic recreation for older adults within their curriculum. A textbook that provides information that connects to health and human service competencies in the field of geriatric, gerontology, and interprofessional practice is desperately needed. Recreational Therapy for Older Adults provides an overview of gerontology and geriatric topics in addition to best practices in recreational therapy. 

Currently there are no textbooks in existence for teaching this course. This textbook will be key to providing a workforce that is qualified to provide services to an aging world. In addition, the approximately 30% of the CTRSs who work with older adults will want to purchase this book for their professional libraries. 

Textbook Organization

Each chapter will include objectives, key words, an introduction, specific content for each chapter, conclusion, reading comprehension questions, suggested classroom activities, test questions, and references. In addition, many chapters will provide case studies and text boxes highlighting best practices. 

Chapter Highlights 

Chapter 1 will provide an overview of recreational therapy services for older adults, federal laws impacting older adult services, and definitions of old, including chronological vs. biological age, frisky, fragile, frail, young-old, old-old, and the oldest of the old. In addition, terminology surrounding the study of older adults such as geriatrics, gerontology, ageism, culture change, National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification (NCTRC) data, and global aging will be addressed. 

Chapter 2 covers demographics, health disparities, social security, Medicaid, Medicare reimbursement, and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Federal tags (CMS F-tags) that effect recreational therapy practice. Furthermore, information on the recreational therapy process, non-drug approaches to care, and care transitions will be discussed. 

Chapter 3 highlights biological aging and reviews typical processes of aging by the body systems. An overview of chronicity, including the compression of morbidity is discussed. A comprehensive section on healthy aging is provided that includes access to health care and supportive services, age-friendly communities, aging in place, brain health, caregiver quality of life, care coordination and transitions, nutrition, physical activity, obesity, self-management strategies, and social engagement. 

Chapter 4 discusses the biological factors and theories of aging and longevity. Concepts such as life span, life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy are reviewed. Moreover, a variety of biological and environmental theories of aging are presented. Lastly, the anti-aging medical movement and blue zones are debated and discussed. 

Chapter 5 focuses on chronic and acute conditions and geriatric syndromes. The top five chronic health conditions (heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease) and common acute illnesses (pneumonia, influenza, common cold, acute bronchitis, urinary tract infections, diarrhea, shingles), along with many geriatric syndromes (dementia, delirium, incontinence, falls, osteoporosis, weight loss) are presented.

Chapter 6 helps the recreational therapist understand the psychological perspectives, including mental health and mental disorders experienced by older adults. Creativity, wisdom, intelligence, and memory are presented, and mental disorders such as neurocognitive disorders, delirium, depression and anxiety disorders, major depression, dysthymia, and minor depression are discussed. Rounding out the chapter is an overview of psychoactive medications and the use of non-drug approaches to care are provided. 

Chapter 7 informs recreational therapy practice by highlighting theoretical concepts. A review of health promotion models such as the health belief model, the transtheoretical model, and the international classification of functioning, disability, and health is provided. Many social and psychological theories are presented that can guide practice. Examples include, but are not limited to role theory, activity theory, successful aging, optimizing health and well-being through therapeutic recreation, positive psychology, person-directed care, and gerotranscendence. 

Chapter 8 provides the reader with a comprehensive review of assessment in recreational therapy for older adults. A discussion on why practitioners need to conduct assessments, the communication skills required along with useful and practical comprehensive assessment information. You will find assessments on cognition, physical function, screening techniques, mood, anxiety, delirium, pain, qualify of life, federal assessment (MDS 3.0), and the Buettner Assessment of Needs, Diagnoses, and Interested in Recreational Therapy in Long-Term Care (BANDIRT). 

Chapter 9 offers numerous recreational therapy interventions for older adults. An overview of the Dementia Practice Guidelines is provided along with interventions that support behavior management, cognition, falls, healthy aging, hospice, palliative, and comfort care, depression, pain management, and physical interventions. 

Chapter 10 encourages the reader to consider the many roles of the recreational therapist. The chapter highlights to role the Ombudsmen Reconciliation Act (OBRA) has played in clinical practice, the differences between recreational therapy and activities professionals, and the many roles of the recreational therapist. For example, how we can affect an older adult’s quality of life and the role of the recreational therapist in culture change. In addition, a discussion on the recreational therapist many roles such as the expert clinician, trainer and educator, and consumer of evidence.

Chapter 11 reviews the many job settings a recreational therapist may work. There are many more job opportunities to work with older adults besides long-term xi care and skilled nursing facilities. Examples include, but are not limited to; home care, PACE programs, Hospital Elder Life Programs (HELP), mental health services, and palliative and hospice services. 
An appendix is provided to the reader that includes work the authors and their colleagues have done over the many years they have worked in recreational therapy.

Introduction
About the Authors

1 Introduction to Recreational Therapy and Older Adults
Introduction: Recreational Therapists Should Study Aging
Recreational Therapy Services for Older Adults
Federal Law Impacting Older Adult Services
Defining Old
Terminology Surrounding the Study of Older Adults
Why Recreational Therapists Need to Study Aging
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
Multiple Choice Questions
References

2 The Facts
Introduction
Demographics
Health Disparities
Social Security, Medicaid, Medicare, Reimbursement
Centers for Medicaid and Medicare (CMS) Federal Regulations
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
Multiple Choice Questions
References

3 Health Aging and the Compression of Morbidity
Introduction
Biological Aging
Typical Processes of Aging by Body System
Chronicity
Healthy Aging.
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
Multiple Choice Questions
References.

4 Biological Factors and Theories of Aging and Longevity
Introduction
Life Span, Life Expectancy, and Healthy Life Expectancy
Biological Theories of Aging
Finding Longevity
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
Multiple Choice Questions
References

5 Chronic, Acute Health Conditions and Geriatric Syndromes
Introduction
Chronic Illness
Common Chronic Illness
Helping Older Adults with Chronic Illness
Geriatric Syndromes
Acute Illness
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
Multiple Choice Questions
References

6 Psychological Perspectives, Mental Health and Mental Disorders
Introduction
Psychological Perspectives
Mental Health
Mental Disorders
Depression and Anxiety Disorders
Psychoactive Medications
Use of Non-Pharmacological Interventions
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
References

7 Theoretical Concepts to Inform Recreational Therapy Practice
Introduction: The Importance of Theory
Health Promotion Models
Social and Psychological Theories Related to Older Age
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
Multiple Choice Questions
References

8 Assessing Older Adults
Introduction
Assessment
Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment
Federal Assessment
Recreational Therapy Assessment
Cultural Sensitivity
Current Research and Best Practices
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
Multiple Choice Questions
References

9 Interventions for Older Adults
Introduction
Dementia Practice Guidelines
Behavior Management
Cognitive
Falls Prevention
Healthy Aging
Hospice/Palliative/Comfort Care
Depression
Pain Management
Physical Interventions
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
Multiple Choice Questions
References

10 The Roles of the Recreational Therapist
Introduction
Ombudsmen Reconciliation Act (OBRA)
Differences between Recreational Therapy and Activities Professionals
Role of the Recreational Therapist
Quality of life
Culture Change
The Four Major Roles
Activity Services
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
References

11 Job Settings
Introduction
Professional Profile
Continuum of Care
Job Settings
Conclusion
Reading Comprehension Questions
Suggested Classroom Activities
Multiple Choice Questions
References
Appendices
Standards and Guidelines for Gerontology and Geriatrics in Higher Education
Recreational Therapy Competency Scale Skills in Geriatrics
BANDI-RT: Buettner Assessment of Needs, Diagnoses, and Interests for Recreation Therapy in LTC
Dementia Practice Guideline for Recreation Therapy: Treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (2nd ed.)
Index

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